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IOError: [Errno 30] Read only file system

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 30th December 2014

While installing OEL on VirtualBox I got the following error:



















After a little research I solved the problem by chaning IDE for CDROM from “IDE Slave Master” to “IDE Primary Master”

Posted in Oracle on Linux | No Comments »

Step by step video tutorial of installing Oracle Database 12c on OEL 6

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 2nd July 2013

In this video tutorial you’ll learn how to install Oracle Database 12c on Oracle Enterprise Linux 6



You can download .mp4 format of the video from this link

You can watch it online from this link  (Don’t forget to watch it in HD format)

You an download Installation configuration file from this link

Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux, Video Tutorials | 6 Comments »

Using scp with nohup command without providing password

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 1st December 2012

It seems almost impossible for me to use scp from command line with nohup and without providing password. I didn’t want to share authentication keys between servers using ssh-keygen, which seemed to be the only solution to run scp command in the background

I tried:

nohup scp -P 223 /tmp/myfile.dat user:pass@server:/tmp & 

and failed. Using password in such way was incorrect syntax. Then I tried:

nohup scp -P 223 /tmp/myfile.dat user@server:/tmp & 

it asked me for the password:

oracle@server’s password:

[1]+  Stopped   nohup scp -P 223 /tmp/myfile.dat user@server:/tmp & 

and failed again…


After making a little research, I found the following blog post, where the author shows how scp can be used in the command line by providing  password and running the command in the background


Posted in Oracle on Linux | 3 Comments »

How to mount CD-ROM in Linux using CLI

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 21st November 2012

Just wanted to share with you steps to mount CD-ROM in Linux without having GUI.

First of all, you should check /mnt and /media folders and see if it has already been mounted. If it’s not, then you have to mount it by your own

For this make sure you do have CD-ROM plugged in using the following command:

dmesg | grep CD
– Added public key D4A26C9CCD09BEDA
scsi 4:0:0:0: CD-ROM Optiarc DVD RW AD-7270H 1.80 PQ: 0 ANSI: 5
Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
sr 4:0:0:0: Attached scsi CD-ROM sr0


If you got an output something like above, it means that you’ve CD-ROM plugged to the server. Next ,check /dev folder, cdrom should be there:

[root@localhost cdrom1]# ls -ltr /dev/cd*
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 Nov 21 13:55 /dev/cdrw -> sr0
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 3 Nov 21 13:55 /dev/cdrom -> sr0
[root@localhost cdrom1]#


And last, create a folder and mount /dev/cdrom to that folder:

mkdir /cdrom 

mount /dev/cdrom -t iso9660 -r /cdrom


For more information on CD-ROM mounting, check the following useful link:


Posted in Oracle on Linux | 1 Comment »

Finding the folder that consumes more space in Linux OS

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 23rd January 2012

Sometimes we got some folders filled with unknown files either due to any bug where Oracle creates 100 files in a second :) or due to the OS bugs. And in some cases we’re not able to find in which folder files were created. For that, you can use the simplest command in Linux to get the output for the folders with its size sorted. Here’s the command:

[php]du -s /u01/* | sort -n -r


28G     /u01/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/flash_recovery_area



From the output you will get the folder which consumes more space

Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux | 4 Comments »

Change forgotten password of the root user at the Linux server

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 14th November 2009

Today I asked our SysAdmin about a password of one of the servers, but unfortunately he wasn’t able to remember (and didn’t noted it in somewhere). So I decided to crack it using the following steps. It’s documented and is written in the Linux manual :)


Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux | 6 Comments »

Create Database Manually – Step by Step instruction

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 31st May 2009

Today, I’ll show you how we can create a Database without Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). We’re going to create the database manually, using CREATE DATABASE statement. Sometimes, we are not able to use GUI in order to create a database. For this, we should know syntax of database creation from SQL*Plus. To create database manually, follow below steps:    

1. Firstly, export Environment Variables. To export EV automatically for every session, do below changes to /home/oracle/.bashrc file:

 export ORACLE_SID=kamran

export ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1




2. Create parameter file and modify it by setting minimum required parameters:





*.control_files = (‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/control01.ctl’)




After creation of this parameter file, create below folders in /home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/ directory. Three of them are dump folders (needed for trace files and alert.log file). We’re going to keep Control Files and DataFiles in oradata folder.

–          oradata

–          udump

–          bdump

–          cdump



 3. Create Server parameter file (SPFILE) using this parameter file and STARTUP the instance in NOMOUNT mode.

 CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE=’/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/init.ora’;



Now our instance started, SGA allocated and background processes started


4. To create a new database, use the CREATE DATABASE statement. As a result, below files will be created:

–          Redo Log files

–          system.dbf and sysaux.dbf (files for SYSTEM tablespace)

–          undo01.dbf file (for UNDO tablespace)

–          temp_tbs.dbf file (for TEMPORARY tablespace)

–          users.dbf (for DEFAULT PERMANENT tablespace)


//######## Database Creation Code ####### 




LOGFILE GROUP 1 (‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/redo01.log’) SIZE 50 m,

    GROUP 2 (‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/redo02.log’) SIZE 50 m,

    GROUP 3 (‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/redo03.log’) SIZE 50 m






   CHARACTER SET us7ascii


   DATAFILE ‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/system01.dbf’ SIZE 325 m REUSE EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL

   SYSAUX DATAFILE ‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/sysaux.dbf’ SIZE 400 m REUSE

    DEFAULT TABLESPACE tbs_1 DATAFILE ‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/users.dbf’ SIZE 200m REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED

    DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE tempts1 TEMPFILE ‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/temp_tbs.dbf’ SIZE 20m REUSE

    undo TABLESPACE undotbs DATAFILE ‘/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/oradata/undo01.dbf’ SIZE 200m REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON MAXSIZE UNLIMITED



 5. Run the scripts necessary to build views, synonyms, and PL/SQL packages





6. Shutdown the instance and startup the database. Your database is ready for use!


Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux | 66 Comments »

Step by Step Installing Oracle Database 10g Release 2 on Linux (CentOS) and AUTOMATE the installation using Linux Shell Script

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 1st May 2009

Note: Before reading the post, you can have a look to my latest VIDEO instruction on Installing OEL and Oracle 10gR2


In order to use Oracle Database, first of all we need to setup Oracle Software. Installation of Oracle Database on Windows is very easy. By running setup.exe from installation CD of Oracle for Windows, we can invoke a setup and by clicking NEXT buttons we can install Oracle Software and Database without any problem. We don’t need any prerequisite actions before installation. But in Linux it’s different. If we want to install Oracle Database on Linux OS, we should follow some prerequisite actions.

Today, we’re going to install Oracle Database on CentOS. To do it, we use last version of CentOS (the latest release for now) – “CentOS-5.2” and mostly used release of Oracle Database – “Oracle Database 10g Release 2”. And we’re going to practice this whole project on VMware 6.0.0

Before starting, we need to install VMware. Then, we need to install CentOS on VMware. After that, we are going to install Oracle Database. You should refer to my previous posts in order to install VMware and Centos

Step by step installing VMware

Step by Step Installing CentOS on VMware

But there’s one thing we should keep in mind. During installation of CentOS, on the “package lists” page, we should behave differently. It will be discussed in the next paragraphs.  

This project covers following steps:

  1. Checking minimum hardware requirements
  2. Installing rpm packages which are required for Oracle installation
  3. Configuring kernel parameters
  4. Creating groups and user for Oracle Installation
  5. Installing Oracle Software
  6. Creating an Oracle Database
  7. Connecting to Database with Enterprise Manager
  8. AUTOMATING all processes and steps of installation Oracle 10g R2 on Centos using Shell Script

As you see from the list above, in order to setup Oracle Database, we need to change some parameters in the system. Changing these parameters each time could lead to mistakes and waste of time. The main purpose of our article is to automate all these processes and save your time. For this purpose we’re going to use “Shell Script”

Now I’m going to explain above mentioned steps one by one

1. Checking minimum hardware requirements

At least, your system should meet the following requirements:

–           1GB RAM 

–           Requirement for swap space in Oracle installation is as follows:

                Available RAM                                      Swap Space Required

                Between 1 GB and 2 GB        1.5 times the size of RAM

                Between 2 GB and 8 GB       Equal to the size of RAM

                More than 8 GB                     .75 times the size of RAM

–           400MB free space in /tmp directory

–           Depending on type of the installation, 1.5-3.5 GB free space for Oracle Software

–           1.5GB free space if new Oracle Database is created

Getting familiar with requirements mentioned above, we need to get hardware information of our system. To check the size of RAM, Swap space and tmp directory, we run these commands:

–           To check the size of physical memory, execute                             grep MemTotal     /proc/meminfo

–           To check the size of swap space, execute                                          grep SwapTotal     /proc/meminfo

–           To check the space in  /tmp directory, execute                            df –h /tmp

2. Installing rpm packages which are required for Oracle installation

While installing CentOS, we have to install some rpm packages. During the installation, on the installation window you get list of packages. Here, we select “Customize” choice


On “Customized” window, we check required packages and uncheck packages that are not required for Oracle Installation


In the packages list, check following packages. Uncheck all packages that are not in the list below

Desktop Environments

                                                  GNOME Desktop Environment  


                                                  Graphical Internet


                                                  Development Libraries

                                                  Development Tools

                                                  GNOME Software Development

                                                  Java Development

                                                  Legacy Software Development

                                                  X Software Development


                                                  Server Configuration Tools

                                                  Web Server

                                                  Windows File Server

Base System

                                                  Administration Tools



                                                  Legacy Software Support

                                                  System Tools

                                                  X Window System

Furthermore, after installation of CentOS, we have manually to install these four rpm packages. Surely, you can select them (except libaio-devel package) from the package list during setup, for many people who don’t want to find these packages in the package list, installing it manually after system installation is the best option. These are packages which should be installed before Oracle installation

–           compat-db-4.2.52-5.1.i386.rpm

–           sysstat-7.0.2-1.el5.i386.rpm

–           libaio-devel-0.3.106-3.2.i386.rpm

–           libXp-1.0.0-8.1.el5.i386.rpm

In order to install these packages, you can use rpm –Uvh command by changing directory to CentOS directory inside the CD (DVD) of CentOS installation as shown below


3. Changes to be made to Kernel parameters

After installing above mentioned packages, we need to change some Kernel parameters and make them match to Oracle requirements. Parameters which should be changed are shown below

shmmax 2147483648
shmmni 4096
shmall 2097152
shmmin 1
semmsl 250
semmns 32000
semopm 100
semmni 128
file-max 65536
ip_local_port_range 1024   65000
rmem_default 1048576
rmem_max 1048576
wmem_default 262144
wmem_max 262144


We do all these changes in the /etc/sysctl.conf file by adding these lines to that file:

kernel.shmmax = 2147483648

kernel.shmall = 2097152


kernel.sem=250 32000 100 128


net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range=1024 65000





After appending those lines we save that file and run the following command to make these changes effective immediately in the running system

/sbin/sysctl –p


Setting Shell limits for the Oracle UserTo improve the performance of the software on Linux systems, you must increase the following shell limits for the oracle user:

1. Add the following lines to /etc/security/limits.conf file

oracle              soft    nproc   2047

oracle              hard    nproc   16384

oracle              soft    nofile  1024

oracle              hard    nofile  65536

2. Add the following lines to /etc/pam.d/login file

session    required     /lib/security/pam_limits.so

session    required     pam_limits.so

3. In order to use Oracle Software, we need to make a change in “oracle” user’s buffer size and number of opened file descriptors. In order to do it, we add below lines to /etc/profile file

if [ $USER = “oracle” ]; then

        if [ $SHELL = “/bin/ksh” ]; then

              ulimit -p 16384

              ulimit -n 65536


              ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536



4. Changing redhat-release file

One of the first checks performed by the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) is to determine if the host platform is supported. The OUI uses the file /etc/redhat-release to determine the platform. For the case of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Database 10g Release 2 expects either RHEL 3 or RHEL/OEL 4.

The easiest way to get around this error is to modify the /etc/redhat-release file replacing the current release information (CentOS release 5 (Final)) with the following:


Before modifying /etc/redhat-release, make a backup copy of the file and ensure to replace the original one after the Oracle installation and patch process has been completed.

cp /etc/redhat-release /etc/redhat-release.original

echo “redhat-4” > /etc/redhat-release

After all these configurations, you should get this result:


4. Create groups and user for Oracle Installation

In this step, we create “oinstall” and “dba” groups and “oracle” user to install Oracle Software, and create new Database  

groupadd  oinstall

groupadd  dba

useradd -m -g oinstall -G dba -d /home/oracle -s /bin/bash -c “Oracle Software Owner” oracle

passwd oracle


5. Installing Oracle Database 10g Release 2

First of all, we need to download Oracle Database 10g R2. To download it, use this link:


After download finish, we need to copy this file to the Virtual Machine. To copy it, we have two choices:

  • Copy it using USB Flash Drive
  • Copy it using Samba service
  • Create an image file (.iso) from zipped installation and mount it to Virtual Machine

Here, we’re going to copy the zipped file using second technique. With any ISO creator program, create .iso file from zipped installation file of Oracle Database. And then mount it to the Virtual Machine as shown below:


Now switch to the desktop of CentOS, right click on DVD of CentOS installation on the desktop and click “Eject” as shown below:


Now enter to “Computer” and double click on “CD-ROM” icon.


Installation file of Oracle Database will be opened:


Now, create install folder on the /tmp directory,  change owner of this folder to “oracle”, copy this file into /tmp/install directory

Then unzip this file and begin installation as follows:


After unzip completes, installation will begin automatically


Oracle Database 10g Installation


If you want to create new database after software installation, check “Create Starter Database” checkbox and enter database name and password, then click Next


Specify Inventory directory (keep it as default) and click Next


Here we see that all Prerequisite Checks succeeded.


Click Install to begin installation


Now, we’re installing Oracle 10g Software.

6.  Creating an Oracle Database

As we’ve checked “Create Starter Database” at the first page of the installation, new database will be created automatically after software installation


After database created, you’ll get information about your database, Enterprise Manager and Spfile


Click Ok. In the below window, you’ll get location for two scripts which you should run as a root user to complete last configurations. Open new Terminal window and run those two scripts:


Installation of Oracle Database 10g completed successfully! Congratulations!

Now reboot your server and login as oracle user and start newly created database.  


If we want to login to our database, we run sqlplus. But before it, we need to set Environment Variables. We can do it automatically by adding them to .bashrc file in the /home/oracle directory as below:

export ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1



alias database =’export ORACLE_SID=kamran;sqlplus “/ as sysdba”‘


Now, let’s open new terminal and try again


As you see, after setting Environment Variables to their correct values, I was able to login to SQL*Plus using two ways.

7.   Connecting to Database with Enterprise Manager

Now, let’s start Oracle Enterprise Manager. In order to use EM, we should firstly start listener. In production environment, you need automate database, listener and EM startup. To automate them, please refer to one of my previous blogs – Automatically StartUp and Shutdown an Oracle Database in Linux OS

Start the listener


Then, start Enterprise Manager


Now, we can login to EM page to administer our database using above given address:



Enter user sys and its password, then select “SYSDBA” as a role and click Login


Using Enterprise Manager, you can administer your database in very easy steps

That’s all!! Our Database and EM is ready for use! Congratulations!!!

By following above mentioned steps we were able to install Oracle 10g R2 on CentOS 5. But if we carry out frequent tests and as a result of these tests each time we are to install Oracle Database, then we need to automate installation of Oracle Database. I would suggest two options to overcome this problem:

  1. To install CentOS+Oracle on VMware and copy image of VMware to elsewhere, then each time use this image to get fresh copy of Oracle Database
  2. To automate installation of Oracle Database by using Shell Script

Let’s explain each option in details: 

  1. Firstly, I usually create new Virtual Machine with 10GB size. Then, I install CentOS on it and create an Oracle Database with all its configurations. Then I shut down Virtual Machine and copy all the folders to another directory. Usually, I create two copies of the Virtual Machine. Then I do all my tests on the first Virtual Machine. When it becomes useless, I shut down and delete it as a whole folder, open second Virtual Machine which I’ve copied and continue my tests.
  2. Second way is the best method of approach to the problem. For this, I create a shell script and write all steps and do all configuration changes from this script. By running this script once, all configurations needed for Oracle Installation will be changed automatically and we will only be asked for new oracle user’s password and next we’ll see installation page open.


Automating installation of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 on Centos 5 using Shell Script

To automate this job, we wrote a Shell Script. Before running this script, we should follow some steps as shown below: 

1. Firstly you should know that before running this script we should create install directory in /tmp directory and copy zipped installation file of Oracle to this directory  with this installation script

2. Before running this script we must be sure that installation DVD of CentOS has been inserted or installation DVD image of CentOS mounted to the system. You can check it by running this code:


3. After installation completes, change the following Environment Variables and alias name into proper names which you’ve used during installation in the .bashrc file

  1. ORACLE_HOME  – If it is different folder, change it to correct value
  2. ORACLE_SID – If it is different SID, change it to correct SID  
  3. As an alias, you can assign whatever you want

If everything is OK as mentioned above, we change directory to /tmp/install folder and run install.sh file. By running this shell script, all configurations needed for installation will be automatically changed and only thing asked will be oracle user’s password. After that we’ll see Oracle Database installation page. By clicking Next buttons we’ll be able to install Oracle Software and Database very easily

Now, let’s install Oracle Database 10g using this Shell Script

First of all, we need to create install folder in the /tmp directory and copy zipped installation file of Oracle Database 10g to /tmp/install directory with install.sh script and check their existence. After that we need to mount Centos DVD once more, because we’re going to install some packages that were not installed with CentOS. After getting below screen, you can start installation


Here we see that

  • We have zipped installation file of Oracle Database 10g in the /tmp/install directory
  • We mounted CentOS DVD

 Now, switch to /tmp/install folder and run install.sh script




Here, enter oracle user’s password. Then click ok. After this step, zipped file will be unzipped


After it finishes unzipping, we’ll get Installation Window


That’s all! After getting this page, you should follow above mentioned installation steps in which we installed Oracle Database manually.

Using automatic install script we’ve avoided of all configuration settings and got Oracle 10gR2 installer page opened successfully

The automatic installation script for Oracle Database on Linux is as follows:


#########———— Installing Rpm files —–########


#Change directory to /tmp/install

cd /tmp/install

#Install all packages that are not installed during OS installation and that are required packages for Oracle Database 10gR2

echo “Installing rpm packages …”


rpm -Uvh “$(find /media/ -name compat-db*)”

rpm -Uvh “$(find /media/ -name sysstat*)”

rpm -Uvh “$(find /media/ -name libaio-devel*)”

rpm -Uvh “$(find /media/ -name libXp-1*)”


echo “Rpm packages installed


#Add lines to limits.conf file

echo “Changing limits.conf file”

cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF

oracle soft nproc 2047

oracle hard nproc 16384

oracle soft nofile 1024

oracle hard nofile 65536


echo “limits.conf file changed successfully


#Add lines to profile to give maximum limit for Oracle user

echo “Changing /etc/profile file ….”

cat >> /etc/profile <<EOF

if [ \$USER = “oracle” ]; then

                                                  if [ \$SHELL = “bin/ksh” ]; then

                                                                ulimit -p 16384

                                                                ulimit -n 65536


                                                                ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536


                                                  umask 022



echo “/etc/profile file changed successfully


#Add line to /etc/pam.d/login file

echo “Changing /etc/pam.d/login file …”

cat >> /etc/pam.d/login <<EOF

session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so


echo “/etc/pam.d/login file changed successfuly


#Add some kernel parameters to /etc/sysctl.conf file

echo “Changing kernel parameters … “


cat >> /etc/sysctl.conf <<EOF

kernel.shmmax = 2147483648

kernel.shmall = 2097152


kernel.sem=250 32000 100 128


net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range=1024 65000







echo “Kernel parameters changed successfully

#Save all new kernel parameters


/sbin/sysctl -p


#Add “redhat-4” line to /etc/redhat-release file


echo “Changing /etc/redhat-release file …”

cp /etc/redhat-release /etc/redhat-release.original

echo “redhat-4” > /etc/redhat-release

echo “/etc/redhat-release file changed successfully


#Create new groups and “oracle” user and add this user to group

echo “Creating new groups and ‘oracle’ user …”

groupadd oinstall

groupadd dba

useradd -m -g oinstall -G dba -d /home/oracle -s /bin/bash -c “Oracle Software Owner” oracle

passwd oracle

echo “Groups and user created successfully

#Adding Environment Variables

#Adding Environment Variables

cat >> /home/oracle/.bashrc <<EOF

export ORACLE_HOME=/home/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1



alias mydb=’export ORACLE_SID=mydb;sqlplus “/ as sysdba”‘

export ORACLE_SID=mydb





#Unzip setup of Oracle

echo “Unzipping setup of Oracle 10g Release 2…. “

unzip 10201_database_linux32.zip

echo “Setup file successfully unzipped

#Enter to installation directory and run the installation …

echo “Installation begins …”

cd /tmp/install/database

chmod 755 runInstaller

chmod 755 install/.oui

chmod 755 install/unzip

xhost +

sudo -u oracle /tmp/install/database/runInstaller

Posted in Administration, DBA scripts, Oracle on Linux | 227 Comments »

Mount Windows folder on Linux

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 6th April 2009

Sometimes, we need to mount a Windows folder on Linux. In order to do it, let’s follow these steps:

1. Create a directory in Windows, share it and give full permission:


2. Create new directory in /tmp directory on Linux, name it to “test_dir” and mount shared Windows directory into that directory by running below code:

mount -t cifs -o username=#####,password=###### //192.168.##.##/test   /tmp/test_dir


3. Now, by creating new file and folder in Windows directory, we can get them from Linux box. Let’s create a file and a directory in Windows folder


4. At last, let’s check it from Linux, whether we can see the file and the directory or not


As you can see, we can mount any Windows folder in Linux with very easy steps

Posted in Oracle on Linux | 15 Comments »

Step by Step multiplexing Control File of Oracle Database by adding new hard drive to Linux

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 23rd March 2009

Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux | 9 Comments »