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Archive for December 22nd, 2008

Automatically StartUp and Shutdown an Oracle Database in Linux OS

Posted by Kamran Agayev A. on 22nd December 2008

Today I want to show you how we can Start-up and Shutdown an Oracle database on Linux OS automatically
In Windows, when we install an Oracle database, it creates a Windows Service which starts the database automatically as soon as OS starts. But in Linux, it’s different. You need to create your own service to start and shutdown your database when you start and shutdown your OS respectively. Now we’ll go through this example step by step to show how we can do it

1. First of all we’ve to change our /etc/oratab file. Why do we use it? Oratab file is used by Oracle utilities. It’s created by root.sh script, when we install an Oracle Server, and is updated each time by DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) when we create a new database. After having installed a new database (in this case, our database name is mydb), entering by root user, let us see the source of this file. At the end of this file, you’ll find:


The first field is the name of my database (mydb), the second one is my home directory (/home/oracle/product/10.1.0/Db_1), and the third indicates to the dbstart utility whether the database should, or should not be brough up at the system boot time with “Y” or “N” parameters respectively
As a root user, we’ll change last field of this line from “N” to “Y” to let dbstart utility start this database when it runs

2. In this step, we’ll create a file with name startdb and write a small script to be run when our system starts or shuts down. If you want this file to be added as a service which starts when your OS boots, you should put it in /etc/init.d/ directory. In this script, we’ll define two variables, ORA_OWNER and ORACLE_HOME and then, we’ll start (or shutdown) our database by connecting with oracle user and running lsnrctl (Listener utility), dbstart (utility which starts the database) and dbshut (utility which shutdowns the database) utilities depending on our OS state.
This is the source of our startdb file:


case “$1” in
 ‘start’)  #If the system is starting, then …
su – $ORA_OWNER -c “$ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start” #Start the listener
su – $ORA_OWNER -c “$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbstart #Start the database

‘stop’)   #If the system is stops, that is we’re shutting down our OS, then …
  su -$ORA_OWNER -c $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbshut
  su -$ORA_OWNER -c “$ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop”

3. Once you’ve saved your file into this directory, make sure that it’s executable by running:
chmod 750  startdb

4. Then you need to add the appropriate symbolic links to cause the script to be executed when the system goes down, or comes up. Create it with ln -s command.

# ln -s /etc/init.d/startdb /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/K01startdb
# ln -s /etc/init.d/startdb /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99startdb
# ln -s /etc/init.d/startdb /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/K01startdb
# ln -s /etc/init.d/startdb /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S99startdb

Let’s analyze these commands:
The first line creates symbolic link of our script in rc3.d directory. At startup, Linux runs /etc/rc.d/rc script at the current level (normally 3 or 5). rc3.d indicates 3rd runlevel, “K” indicates OS’s shutdown (on servers shutdown, Linux calls the scripts in /etc/rc.d/rc3/K* in order)
The second line creates another symbolic link of our script, to be run at startup of our OS, indicating “S99” and the name of our script
Another two lines creates symoblic links for 5th runlevel.

That’s all. Your script and your service is ready for use. Just restart your OS and upon startup you’ll see your newly created service running. Then open new terminal, enter you database and issue :
SQL>SELECT status FROM v$instance;

You’ll see your database’s status is OPEN

In some releases, even when we create a new service, it doesn’t work. When we issue dbstart command manually from OS, we’re getting an error:
cat: /var/opt/oracle/oratab: No such file or directory

It has simple reason and solution
If the directory /var/opt/oracle exists during the Oracle installation the dbhome script will have the parameter ORATAB set to “/var/opt/oracle/oratab” instead of “/etc/oratab”. The normal DBCA process during a default installation will still add the instance entry to /etc/oratab.

It has two solutions:
1. You can either copy the original oratab file to this directory :
cp /etc/oratab /var/opt/oracle/

2. Or you can edit dbstart and dbshut scripts, find the variable ORATAB, and you’ll find that it’s addressing to  /var/opt/oracle/oratab file. Just change it to /etc/oratab

Posted in Administration, Oracle on Linux | 40 Comments »